Border spectra
If you look through a prism at a bright rectangular form surrounded by a black background, images of the rectangle appear in in two differnet places.
Fig. 1 shows a photo with the image of the white, rectangular area on top and two different images below. These two images appear together in the prism. One image appears mirrored around the longitudinal axis (operation m), the second image does appear not mirrored, but with colored border spectra (operation b): 
red/yellow at the upper border of the image and blue/turquoise at the bottom border of the image. 
In Fig. 2  these two images are shown next to each other in the 2nd line.. 

The two images in the prism (Fig.1) were then viewed through a second prism, which was placed at a distance parallel to the first prism. The angle of the first prism remained unchanged. The distance and angle of the second prism were each adjusted in a such way, that operation m  was followed by operation b  and vice versa.

The results are shown in the third line of Fig 2, which are amazing. It makes a big difference whether you apply operation m  first and then operation b  or vice versa. 
In mathematical terms this would mean that multiplying 
m times b produces something different than multiplying 
b times m. But the mathematical rule  m x b  =   b x m applies to numbers and things, not to processes. The result of this experiment shows, that light cannot be viewed as being made out of things (photons like small balls), but that light must be looked at as processes. This is in accord with quantum physics, where photons are interpreted as processes.

I developed a graphic model, the so-called quantum model, which shows light as process. (see page light). 
To understand light it is also necessary to include processes in the eye and brain and mental processes of percieving* and being aware (see my video: Light, quantum physics & Buddhism). 

In both experiments you can touch the bright white original image. The two additional images appear as offset images in the prism. When the two appear in the prism, their forms had shifted to a place different from the place of the white original. The  same is true for the black space which surrounds the white form. Both, the shape of the rectangle and the surrounding black space were shifted, because shape and space are always inextricably linked. The borders of the rectangular form are the dividing lines between form and space. The light/dark contrast at these borders is decisive for the formation of colored border spectra. However, the color spectra only appear on the horizontal and not on the vertical borders. Colores appear only at borders, that have an opposite border in the direction of the displacement of the respective image. This law of optics was already formulated by Goethe in his extensive treatise “Zur Farbenlehre”. With this law Goethe presented a new explanation of how colored spectra appear and thus questioned the current Newtonian explanation using so-called “light rays” (see further infos on page light rays).

* In an extensive study, Prof. Ivo Kohler at the University of Innsbruck examined these processes of perception in extraordinary situations. The test subject wore glasses with prisms for 10 days without interruption, with which they experienced their everyday world turned upside down. The floor was up now and the sky was down. At first they could not find their way around in everyday life without others help. But then something unexpected happened. Suddenly the perception changed quite spontaneously. As usual, the sky was up again and the earth was down again, although the subject continued to wear the prism-glasses. When the test person then took off the glasses after 10 days, the perception turned again, i.e. the world was now upside down without the prism-glasses. After a few minutes, however, the picture swapped again quite spontaneously, so that the test subject saw the world again as before they wear the glasses. These investigations with prism-glasses are documented in two videos: 
- Living In A Reversed World     video in English
- Die Umkehrbrille und das aufrechte Sehen    video in German
Prof. Kohler's investigations make clear, that swapping up and down or right and left are active and creative processes in our processes of perceiving. It is therefore essential to consider the process of perception and being aware, if we want to say something essential about light, shapes and colours. 





Fig. 3 shows the the same arrangement as in the photo in Fig. 1:
above - without a prism
below - mirrored (operation m)
below - not mirrored but with colored border spectra (operation b):
red/yellow at the top border and blue/turquoise at the bottom border.
The two images of the rectangular form are located here below the place of the original form.

Fig  4  shows how the arragement of the inmages changed, when the prism was turned around. 
Compared to Fig. 3  the two images of the rectangular form are located here above the original white form 
below - without a prism
above - mirrored (operation m)
above - not mirrored but with colored border spectra (operation b) 

Compared to Fig. 3  the two images of the rectangular form appeared in Fig. 4  not only in a different arrangement,
but also with the colours of the border spectra swapped: 
blue/turquoise at the top border 
red/yellow at the bottom border. 

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